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Home > Computer Science > Computer Fundamentals
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Computer Fundamentals

System analysis

System: An organized relationship among the functioning units or components, which work in sync to achieve a common goal.

System Study: A study of operations of a set of connected elements and the inter connections between these elements. It clearly shows that no one can ignore an element while doing a system study.

System Approach: Shows a set of procedure to solve a particular problem, It applies scientific methods to understand the inter relationship between the elements to solve the problem.

System analysis: It is a management exercise, which helps us in designing a new system or improving the existing system.

Characteristics of a System

1. Organization: It says the Structure or order of built.
2. Interaction: Procedure in which the components interact.
3. Interdependence.
4. Integration
5. Central Objective

Elements of System Analysis

There are 4 basic elements of System analysis, they are

1. Outputs

2. Inputs : The essential elements of Inputs are
Accuracy of data
Proper format

3. Files
4. Process

Types of Systems

1. Physical or abstract systems
2. Open or closed systems
3. Deterministic or probabilistic
4. Man made systems
Formal systems – Organization representation
Informal systems – Employee based system
Computer based information systems – Computer handling business applications. These are collectively known as Computer Based Information systems (CBIS).
a. Transaction Processing System (TPS)
b. Management Information System (MIS)
c. Decision Support System (DSS)
d. Office Automation System (OAS)

SDLC is a cycle to develop software, basic steps are

1. Preliminary Investigation
Request clarification
Feasibility Study
a. Technical feasibility
b. Economical
c. Operational

Request Approval

2. Determination of system requirements
3. Design system
4. Development of software
5. System testing
6. Implementation, evaluation & maintenance
Operational Evaluation
Organizational Impact
User Manager
Development performance.

System analyst is a person who conducts the system study & identifies the activities & objectives, formulate a set of rules to achieve the objects. His main activities are

Problem identification, which a crucial part.
Data gathering
Develop a solution for the problem
Co-ordinate to develop all possible solutions.
Develop plans to meet management objectives
System Designing
Co-ordinate the testing procedures.

He should have following Qualities.

1. Knowledge of people
2. Knowledge of Business functions
3. Knowledge of data processing principles
4. Ability to communicate
5. Flexibility
6. Analytical Mind
7. Well educated with sharp mind

System Projects

Selection of System projects Depends on:

1. Capability
2. Control
3. Communication
4. Cost
5. Competitiveness

System project requests may come from, Requests from

1. Dept managers
2. Senior Executives
3. System Analysts
4. Outside groups

Project review & Selection

Group of people do project selection after receiving the requests, the groups are

1. Steering committee
2. Information systems committee
3. User group Committee

Preliminary Investigation is done with by

1. Reviewing the Business records to understand the business
2. On site observations
3. Conducting Interviews

Project feasibility is tested using

1. Operational
2. Technical
3. Economical

Problem Classification & Definition are depends on

1. Problem of Reliability
2. Problem of validity
3. Problem of Accuracy
4. Problem Economy
5. Problem of Timeliness
6. Problem of Capacity
7. Problem of Throughput.

Once a problem has been identified & next step is to evaluate the problem by asking why this problem? What is the root cause…. This is known as Problem Evaluation.

Organizations usually face problems or have opportunity due to the following

1. A new product or plant or a branch
2. A new market or new process
3. Failure of an existing system
4. Inefficiency of an existing system
5. Structural error in the existing system. Etc….

To identify problems/opportunities, scan thru the

1. The performance of the system
2. The information being supplied & its form
3. The economy of processing
4. The control of the information.
5. The efficiency of existing system
6. The security of the data & software
7. The security of equipment & personnel, etc.


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