process followed in making a determination
is called Feasibility
Study. This type of study
clearly specifies that, the project
should be taken up or not.
Different types of fusibilities
1. Technical is the most difficult
Feasibility Study has to follow 8 steps, they are
1. Form a project team &
appoint a PL
2. Prepare system flowcharts
3. Enumerate potential proposed
4. Define & identify characteristics
of proposed system
5. Determine & evaluate performance
& cost effectiveness of each
6. Weight system performance &
7. Select the best proposed system
8. Prepare & report final
project directive to management.
System analysis is the fact finding
followed by analysis of the facts.
Data analysis is also considered
a pre-requisite condition for
While considering the design
alternatives, one should keep
following points in mind to choose
a better alternative.
1. Greater speed of processing
2. Effective procedure to eliminate
3. Better accuracy
4. Faster retrieval of data
5. Integration of data
6. Larger capacity of storing
data with reduced cost
7. Data Security.
Cost benefit analysis will give
a picture of how much cost will
be incurred by the project. There
are four benefits of projects
1. Cost Saving: This lead to
reductions in administrative &
2. Cost avoidance: These are those
which eliminate future in administrative
& operational costs
3. Improved Service: Are those
where performance of the system
is improved by a new computer
based software system
4. Improved Information: Is where
computer based methods lead to
better information for decision
Cost benefits are classified
1. Tangible or intangible
2. Fixed or variable
3. Direct or indirect.
Cost benefit can be summarize
1. Method by which we estimate
the value of the gross benefits
of a new system specification.
2. Method by which we find &
determine the increased operating
costs associated with the above
mentioned gross benefits.
3. The subtraction of these operating
costs from the associated gross
benefits to arrive at net benefits.
4. Method by which we find &
estimate the monetary value of
the development costs that produce
the above mentioned benefits.
5. Methods by which we show the
time phased relationship between
Learning as much as from the
existing system is called Fact-finding
Different methods of Fact findings
1. Interviews Personnel
2. Questionnaires, can have multi
choice, rating, open ended &
3. Observing current system
4. Going thru the current forms
5. Find the data flow in the existing
6. Define the system requirements
After finding the data, analyst
prepares a Data Flow Diagram
(DFD) which depicts the
flow of data in different elements
of the system. Which gives us
a graphical Overview representation.
To draw a analysis DFD,
1. Look at the system from the
inside to the outside
2. Identify the activities
3. Locate the data flows
4. Show the relationship between
5. Find the internal i/p or o/p
that exist within the system
6. Level complex process in the
DFD into simpler ones
7. Look for duplication of data
flows or data stores.
Data Dictionaries defines each
term (called a data element) encountered
during the analysis & design
of the new system. Data elements
can describe files, data flows
or processes. It helps analyst
to define precisely what they
mean by a particular file, data
flow or process. Data dictionary
uses few major symbols, they are
= Equivalent to
[ ] either/or
( ) optional entry.
There are four rules to be followed
while constructing a Data Dictionary.
1. Words should be defined to
stand for what they mean &
not the variable names by which
they may be described in the program.
2. Each word must be Unique.
3. Aliases or synonyms are allowed
when two or more elements show
the same meaning.
4. Self-defining words should
not be decomposed.
After following the these rules,
define variables with there data
types and their properties like
unique or increments automatically.
There are two types of Data Dictionaries
1. Integrated: is a related to
2. Stand Alone: is not tied to
any DBMS, although it may have
advantages of DBMS.
Both types of DD can be identified
by functions as Passive,
Active or in-line.
The functionally passive DD performs
The Active DD supports program
and operations development by
exporting database definitions
for languages like COBOL &
JCL for execution time performance.
An in-line DD is active during
program execution, performing
such feats as transaction validation