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Home > Glossary
 
Glossary
 
#0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

RAD
Rapid Application Development. Often applied to tools such as Microsoft Visual Basic Visual-Basic, Borland Delphi, Oracle Power Objects.

RAID
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A data storage technique.

RAID
See Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) /.

RAL
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK)

RAM
See Random-access memory.

Rapid Deployment Services (RDS)
A service offered by TPS /t to help bring a TME /t installation quickly online.

RARE
Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne: an association of national and international European networks and users - . /RIPE

RARP
See Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) /.

RARP
The TCP/IP protocol that allows a computer with a Physical layer address (such as an Ethernet address) but not an IP address to request a numeric IP address from another computer on the network.

RBOC
Regional Bell Operating Company: Seven companies formed to manage the local exchanges originally owned by AT&T. These companies were created as a result of an agreement between AT&T and the United States Department of Justice.

RBSE
Repository Based Software Engineering. A NASA NASA research and development programme

RCS
A code management code-management system.

RD
Routing Domain: A group of topologically contiguous systems which are running one instance of routing.

Rdb
DEC's SQL-based relational DBMS for VAX/VMS.

RDBA
Remote Database Access: a standard permitting the exchange of information between different DBMS systems.

RDBMS
Relational database management system.

RDF
Rate Decrease Factor: An ABR service parameter, RDF controls the decrease in the cell transmission rate. RDF is a power of 2 from 1/32,768 to 1.

RDS
See Rapid Deployment Services (RDS) /.

read-only
A file that can be read (copied, and so on) but not written (changed). Unix has a system of permissions that enables the owner of the file, the owner's group, or all users to have or not have permission to read, write, or execute file.

Real World Screen Size
Starting out with a 17' monitor, adding the bezel and then having a border around the actual video image may result in a diagonal picture size of only 14". With new technology, there is a way to increase the viewing size but there are some limitations.

realm
A set of hosts that share the same Kerberos /k database.

Real-time
Generally used to describe systems that must guarantee a response to an external event within a given time

real-time
Right now, as opposed to whenever the computer gets around to it.

Realtime
see real-time real-time

record
types See DNS record types /d.

recursion
See infinite loop /i.

redirection
To hijack the output of a command, which is usually on-screen, and put it somewhere else (this process is called output redirection). Alternatively, you can use information from somewhere else as the input for a command (called input redirection) rather than take the input from the keyboard. To redirect the output of a command to a file, use the character. To redirect the output of one command to become the input to another command, use the pipe(|) character.

Redocumentation
The creation or revision of a semantically equivalent representation within the same relative abstraction level. The resulting forms of representation are usually considered alternate views intended for a human audience.

Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
A set of multiple disks that exchange data in such a way as to permit the failure of at least one without losing any data. There are multiple levels of RAID, including:

Reengineering
see Reverse engineering Reverse-engineering

Re-engineering
The examination and modification of a system to reconstitute it in a new form and the subsequent implementation of the new form - . /Reverse

REFINE
A set of reverse engineering Reverse-engineering tools from Reasoning Systems

Refresh rates
An ergonomic issue that is directly related to long term ease of use. A higher refresh rate translates to a more "flicker" free display. Bandwidth, horizontal and vertical scanning rates depict a monitor’s ability to provide a higher resolution and refresh rate.

register
The act of adding a record to the Domain Name System (DNS) /d for a given domain /d.

Registration
The address registration function is the mechanism by which Clients provide address information to the LAN Emulation Server.

Registry
Windows NT combined configuration database.

Relation
A table in a relational database relational-database

Relational database
See Relational DBMS Relational-DBMS.

Relational DBMS
A DBMS DBMS based on the relational model developed by Codd. It allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations, and integrity constraints. In such a database, the data and relations between them are organised in tables. INGRES and Oracle are well-known examples.

Relaying
A function of a layer by means of which a layer entity receives data from a corresponding entity and transmits it to another corresponding entity.

Released version
A version of an object that is not modifiable, as designated by some person. Also known as baseline. See change management change-management.

remote login
Logging in to another computer from your own computer. This process requires that your computer be on a network or have a phone connection.

Remote Monitoring (RMON)
A network monitoring protocol defined in RFC 2074 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2074.txt.

remote mount
Using NFS to connect directories from disk drives on other machines so that they appear as part of your file system.

Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
The remote procedure call structure developed by Sun for communication between clients and servers. See RFC 1050 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1050.txt, RFC 1057 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1057.txt, and RFC 1831 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1831.txt for more.

Rendezvous
In Ada Ada, the method of synchronising the activity of different tasks.

replica
See state database /s.

Repository
The core of a CASE CASE tool is typically a DBMS DBMS where all development documents are stored.

request alias
An alias /a for list requests (typically subscription and resignation requests) that points to the owner alias in a group alias triplet. See group alias /g.

request
An event; that is, something that occurs at a particular time, causing a service to be performed.

Request For Comments (RFC)
A document published on the Internet involving one or more Internet-related technical topic, such as the formats of message headers in mail (SMTP, MIME ) or news. An index is available and authors' instructions are on the IETF web site.

Request for Comments (RFCs)
The set of standards defining the Internet protocols as determined by the Internet Engineering Task Force and available in the public domain on the Internet. RFCs define the functions and services provided by each of the many Internet protocols. Compliance with the RFCs guarantees cross-vendor compatibility.

request
ID The ID number of a print job as it waits in the print queue for the printer daemon to get around to printing it. You need to know the request ID if you want to cancel printing when, for example, the output is horribly fouled up and wasting lots of paper.

REQUEST
REliability and QUality of European Software Technology. An Esprit Esprit project (now terminated).

Requirements
The first stage of software development should be to define requirements with the potential users. In modern methods these requirements should be testable, and will usually be traceable in later development stages - . /Requirement

Resolution
The number of pixels or dots per linear distance, dots per inch (DPI). Tilt The angle of the CRT with respect to the horizontal mounting bracket of the chassis. Tilt can vary depending on the monitors orientation to the Earth's magnetic poles. Monitor manufacturers orient and align their products in the Eastern direction. When the monitor is facing a north/south direction, there may be a slight rotation of the image.

resolver
The DNS /d client; provides a programming interface, utilities, and libraries.

resources
Items corresponding to the systems, devices, services, and facilities in a distributed system.

restore
The process of taking data saved to tape and putting it back onto disk. See also backup /b.

Restructuring
The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behavior (functionality and semantics).

return key
When you use a Unix shell, pressing Return means that you have just typed a command and you want Unix to do it. When you use a text editor, pressing Return means that you want to begin a newline. The Enter key and the Return key usually do the same thing (your keyboard may have one, the other, or both).

Reusability
The possibility of using code developed for one application in another application: traditionally achieved using program libraries. Object-oriented Object-oriented programming offers the potential for greater reusability of code via its techniques of inheritance inheritance, genericity genericity etc. Class libraries with intelligent browsers and application generators are under development to help in this process.

Reuse
The planned use of software artefacts for the solution of multiple problems - . /Reuse

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
A protocol (RFC 903) ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc903.txt that defines how a computer can obtain its IP /i address from its MAC /m address.

Reverse Engineering
The process of analyzing an existing system to identify its components and their interrelationships, and create representations of the system in another form or at a higher level of abstraction. Usually undertaken in order to redesign the system for better maintainability - . /Reverse

reverse lookup
Looking up a DNS /d name from its address, generally by translating the IP address a.b.c.d into reverse order (d.c.b.a.in-addr.arpa). See also lookup /l.

revert
Discard all changes and return to the last-saved version.

RFC
Request For Comment. The name by which Internet Internet standards are known

RFC
Request For Comment: The development of TCP/IP standards, procedures and specifications is done via this mechanism. RFCs are documents that progress through several development stages, under the control of IETF, until they are finalized or discarded.

RFC
See Request For Comments (RFC) /.

RFC:
Request For Comments.

RFC1695
Definitions of Managed Objects for ATM Management or AToM MIB.

RFCOMM:
Serial cable emulation protocol, protocol that emulates serial cable control and data signals and that provides transport capabilities in a wireless environment for protocols that use serial line as their usual transport mechanisms.

RFI
Radio Frequency Interface: Refer to EMI.

RFS
Remote File Sharing. Like NFS A program that lets you treat files on another computer in more or less the same way as you treat files on your own computer.

RFT
Request For Technology - process established by OSF to get proposals for new standards.

Rich Text Format (RTF)
A method of encoding ASCII text to allow formatting such as italics and boldface, as well as font, style, and color information. Used as a standard means of transferring information between different vendors' word processor applications.

RIF
Rate Increase Factor: This controls the amount by which the cell transmission rate may increase upon receipt of an RM-cell. The additive increase rate AIR=PCR*RIF. RIF is a power of 2, ranging from 1/32768 to 1.

RIFF
Resource Interchange File Format from Microsoft - . /Graphics

RIP
Routing Information Protocol. A distance-vector routing protocol used on many TCP/IP inernetworks and IPX networks. The distance-vector algorithm uses a “fewest-hops” routing calculation method.

RIP
See Routing Information Protocol (RIP) /.

RIPE
Reseaux IP Europeens. A collaborative organisation of European Internet Internet service providers - . /RIPE

RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computer. A type of CPU chip. Different from CISC, but not in a way you care about.

RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computer; one whose design is based on the rapid execution of a sequence of simple instructions rather than on the provision of a large variety of complex instructions.

RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computing: A computer processing technology in which a microprocessor understands a few simple instructions thereby providing fast, predictable instruction flow.

RLF
Reuse Library Framework of the DoD DoD

RM Resource Management: Resource Management is the management of critical resources in an ATM network. Two critical resources are buffer space and trunk bandwidth. Provisioning may be used to allocate network resources in order to separate traffic flows according to service characteristics. VPCs play a key role in resource management. By reserving capacity on VPCs, the processing required to establish individual VCCs is reduced. Refer to RM-cell.

RMA number
Return Authorization Number. This is a number issued to you from our Customer Service department used to track you monitor.

RM-Cell
Resource Management Cell: Information about the state of the net work like bandwidth availability, state of congestion, and impending congestion, is conveyed to the source through special control cells called Resource Management Cells (RM-cells).

RM-ODP
The ISO ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Environments.

RMON
See Remote Monitoring (RMON) /.

RMP
Reliable Multicast Protocol

RNIS
Reseau Numerique a Integration de Services. French for ISDN.

RO
Read-Only: Attributes which are read-only can not be written by Network Management. Only the PNNI Protocol entity may change the value of a read-only attribute. Network Management entities are restricted to only reading such read-only attributes. Read-only attributes are typically for statistical information, including reporting result of actions taken by auto-configuration.

role
The authorization granted to a principal for access to a resource, object or method ; the access privileges of an administrator; the name assigned to a level of clearance.

ROOM
Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling. An Object-Oriented Object-Oriented analysis and design approach - . /2GOO

ROOT
An object oriented framework for large scale data analysis at CERN

root directory
The main, top-level directory on a disk. All the files on the disk are in either the root directory or a subdirectory of the root directory (or a sub-subdirectory, and so on).

Root version
The initial value of an object. See change management change-management.

rotate
Move a tape into or out of service; exchange tapes.

rotating backups
Not using the same tapes or floppy disks every time you make a backup. By rotating among two, three or more backup sets, you have a longer history and a more reliable system.

Route Server
A physical device that runs one or more network layer routing protocols, and which uses a route query protocol in order to provide network layer routing forwarding descriptions to clients.

Router
(A) A device that connects two dissimilar networks, and allows packets t be transmitted and received between them. (B) A connection between two networks that specifies message paths and may perform other functions, such as data compression.

Router
A physical device that is capable of forwarding packets based on network layer information and that also participates in running one or more network layer routing protocols.

router
Network hardware that routes or redirects packets /p to their destination host or hosts.

Routing Computation
The process of applying a mathematical algorithm to a topology database to compute routes. There are many types of routing computations that may be used. The Djikstra algorithm is one particular example of a possible routing computation.

Routing Constraint
A generic term that refers to either a topology constraint or a path constraint.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
A UDP /u protocol (RFC 1058) ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1058.txt that propagates routing information throughout an internetwork, so that each router (or gateway) knows where the next hop /h is for any destination. Updated in RFC 2453 ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2453.txt.

Routing Protocol
A general term indicating a protocol run between routers and/or route servers in order to exchange information used to allow computation of routes. The result of the routing computation will be one or more forwarding descriptions.

RP record
See DNS record types, RP record /d.

RPC
Remote Procedure Call: a call to a routine that results in code being executed on a different system from the one where the request originated. An RPC system allows calling procedures and called procedures to execute on different systems without the programmer needing to explicitly code for this.

RPC
See Remote Procedure Call (RPC) /.

RS
Remote single-layer (Test Method): An abstract test method in which the upper tester is within the system under test and there is a point of control and observation at the upper service boundary of the Implementation Under Test (IUT) for testing one protocol layer. Test events are specified in terms of the abstract service primitives (ASP) and/or protocol data units at the lower tester PCO.

RSA
Rivest, Shamir, Adleman public key encryption technique (used by PGP PGP)

RSE
Remote Single-layer Embedded (Test Method): An abstract test method in which the upper tester is within the system under test and there is a point of control and observation at the upper service boundary of the Implementation Under Test (IUT) for testing a protocol layer or sublayer which is part of a multi-protocol IUT.

RSFG
Route Server Functional Group: The group of functions performed to provide internetworking level functions in an MPOA System. This includes running conventional interworking Routing Protocols and providing inter-IASG destination resolution.

RSVP
Rapid System Virtual Prototyping.

RTEE
Real Time Engineering Environment: a set of CASE tools CASE-tools produced by Westmount Technology B.V.

RTF
Rich Text Format: an interchange format from Microsoft for exchange of documents between Word and other document preparation systems - . /RTF

RTF
See Rich Text Format (RTF) /.

RTFM
Short for Kindly Consult the Documentation.

RTL
Register Transfer Language: a kind of HDL HDL used in describing the registers of a computer or digital electronic system, and the way in which data is transferred between them.

RTSA
Real-time structured analysis: versions of structured analysis structured-analysis capable of modelling real-time real-time aspects of software.

Rule-based
Having to do with systems that infer or use "rules" (i.e.logical statements).

RW
Read-Write : Attributes which are read-write can not be written by the PNNI protocol entity. Only the Network Management Entity may change the value of a read-write attribute. The PNNI Protocol Entity is restricted to only reading such read-write attributes. Read-write attributes are typically used to provide the ability for Network Management to configure, control, and manage a PNNI Protocol Entity's behavior.

 
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