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3000 BC - 1890 AD 1900-1952 1953-1983 1984-1990 1991- 2000
From 1991 to 2000
  • 1991:

Compaq reports billion dollar quarter

Apple & IBM sign technology sharing agreement

Brad Silverberg, MSC VP, "DOS is here forever."

Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) is formed

Wide Area Information Service (WAIS) - Kahle

Gopher - Lindner & McCahill

PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) - Zimmerman

World Wide Web (WWW)

Tim Berners-Lee CERN releases the first Web server

Business spending on computing exceeds spending for industrial, mining, farming and construction equipment.

  • 1991: Go Corp. releases PenPoint, an operating system for pen-based computers.
  • 1991: Advanced Micro Devices announces its AMD 386 microprocessor to compete with Intel's 386 chips.
  • 1991: Notebook PCs are introduced by most PC vendors.
  • 1991: HP unveils its RISC-based 9000 Series 700 workstations with exceptional price-performance.
  • 1991: Compaq leads a group of 21 companies to launch the Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) to establish a new standard for high-end PCs and workstations.
  • 1991: The Federal Trade Commission launches an investigation into Microsoft's business practices.
  • 1991: Intel introduces the 486SX, a lower priced 486 chip.
  • 1991: NCR agrees to be acquired by AT&T in a deal valued at $7.4B.
  • 1991: Apple releases the System 7.0 operating system for Macintosh.
  • 1991: Wang will resell IBM's PS/2, RS/6000 and minicomputers. IBM will invest $100M in Wang.
  • 1991: Microsoft rolls out DOS 5.0 with great success.
  • 1991: Major changes among PC dealers as:

ComputerLand acquires Nynex's computer stores,

CompuCom acquires Computer Factory,

ValCom and Inacomp merge;

JWP buys Businessland;

Intelligent Electronics acquires BizMart.

  • 1991: Borland buys Ashton-Tate for $440M.
  • 1991: SunSoft, a Sun Microsystems subsidiary, announces Solaris which is a UNIX operating system for SPARC workstations and 386/486 PCs.
  • 1991:- The Bell companies receive permission to enter the on-line information services market.
  • 1991: Apple and IBM sign a historic deal--including two joint ventures: Kaleida will develop multimedia products, Taligent will develop object-oriented operating software.
  • 1991: Apple rolls out its PowerBook notebook and Quadra Macintosh PCs.
  • 1991: Wavetracer introduces its Zephyr massively parallel computer system with up to 8192 processors.
  • 1991: IBM reorganizes itself into more autonomous business units and several divisions become wholly-owned subsidiaries.
  • 1991: AT&T/NCR agrees to acquire Teradata for $520M.
  • 1991: Many major computer companies have quarterly or full-year loses including Compaq, DEC, IBM, Lotus and Unisys, primarily due to work force reduction costs.
  • 1991: The first general purpose pen-based notebook computers are introduced.
  • 1991: IBM has its first revenue decline in 45 years.
  • 1992

IBM reports first ever year end loss $564 million on sales of $64.8 billion

Intel announces ‘clock doubler’ - debuts 486DX2

IBM announces ThinkPad laptop computer

Apple & Sharp agree to co-develop the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

1,000,000 hosts on the net

  • 1992

Solomon Waters of Altadena, CA, a six year old first grader, comes home from school and reports that he has written on "a machine that looks like a computer but has no TV screen." His mother asks if it was a "typewriter?"

"Yeah! That's what it was!" is his reply. L.A.Times

  • 1992: IBM invests $100M in Groupe Bull.
  • 1992: Silicon Graphics buys Mips Computer in a $400M stock swap.
  • 1992: IBM releases OS/2 Version 2.0 and ships over 1M units.
  • 1992: Microsoft introduces Windows 3.1 and ships nearly 10M units.
  • 1992: The core of Apple's lawsuit versus Microsoft Windows is dismissed.
  • 1992: Sun Microsystems launches a new generation of SPARC computers--the SPARCstation 10 family.
  • 1992: Compaq announces several new lines of PCs and becomes a price trend setter. Its low-price strategy is very successful.
  • 1992: Ken Olsen resigns from Digital Equipment after 25 years at the helm.
  • 1992: Sears and IBM forms a new venture, named Advantis, to compete in the value added network service market.
  • 1992: Wang Laboratories files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
  • 1992: IBM makes the IBM PC Co. a subsidiary.
  • 1992: IBM follows Compaq's strategy and introduces aggressively priced PCs--also with good success.
  • 1992: Compaq enters the Japanese market with aggressively priced PCs--as much as 50% lower than Japanese PC prices.
  • 1992: Digital Equipment announces its next generation computer architecture--the RISC-based Alpha.
  • 1992: Microsoft introduces Windows for Workgroups..
  • 1992: Intel says its next microprocessor will be called Pentium instead of 586.
  • 1992: Hewlett-Packard ships the LaserJet 4, a 600 by 600 dots per inch resolution laser printer.
  • 1992: Novell to acquire UNIX Systems Laboratory, including Univel, from AT&T for $350M.
  • 1993: IBM reports its worst year in history with a loss of $4.97B on revenues of $64.5B.
  • 1993: IBM chairman John Akers resigns and after the most executive search publicity ever, Louis Gerstner becomes the new chairman & CEO.
  • 1993: General Magic, an Apple spin-off, debuts Telescripts, a communications-intensive operating system for PDAs.
  • 1993: Next sells its hardware business to Canon and will concentrate its effort on the Nextstep software business.
  • 1993: Novell unveils NetWare 4.0.
  • 1993: IBM introduces the F series of the AS/400.
  • 1993: Lotus announces Notes 3.0.
  • 1993: Motorola start shipping the first PowerPC microprocessor.
  • 1993: IBM's storage division, Adstar, becomes a subsidiary.
  • 1993: - Microsoft unveils Windows NT.
  • 1993: Pentium-based systems start shipping.

60-MHz Pentium

64-bit bus

32-bit registers

3.2 million transistors


MS-DOS 6.0 sells 1 million retail copies in first 40 days.

Gateway ships # 1,ooo,ooo

InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services

White House & United Nations come on-line

Mosaic (NCSA) takes off - co-developer, Marc Andreesen

WWW has 341,634% annual growth rate

Microsoft ships Windows NT & reports a $1 billion quarter

  • 1993: Microsoft outlines the Plug and Play and Microsoft at Work (MAW) initiatives
  • 1993: EPA's Energy Star Initiative is unveiled and most PC vendors support the program with announcements of energy efficient PCs.
  • 1993: Apple ships the Newton MessagePad--its first Personal Digital Assistant.
  • 1993: AT&T announces it will acquire McCaw Cellular for $12.6B.
  • 1993: Compaq introduces the Presario, a PC family targeted for the home market.
  • 1993: FTC ends its probe of Microsoft without any actions, but the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice will launch its investigation.
  • 1993: IBM debuts its first workstations based on the PowerPC chip.
  • 1993: Novell transfer the UNIX trademark to X/Open and X/Open will certify that an operating system is UNIX compliant.
  • 1993: IBM announces OS/2 for Windows, which upgrades the Windows environment to OS/2.
  • 1993: Sun Microsystems license NextStep and makes a $10M investment in Next.
  • 1993: IBM say it will sell its Federal Systems division ($2.2B in yearly revenue) to Loral for $1.6B.
  • 1994: John Sculley leaves Apple after 10 years at the helm.
  • 1994

US District Court rules Microsoft violated patents held by Stac Electronics for disk compression. Ordered to remove or replace the technology, buys $40 mil stock + pays $43 mil royalties.

Microsoft settles lawsuit alleging monopolistic licensing.

Dr. Thomas R. Nicely, Lynchberg College, notices the Intel Pentium sometimes produces ‘reduced accuracy’ results. Intel confirms flaw, Andy Grove offers apologies to 2 million Pentium owners, later offers to replace all defective floating-point chips. Remedy costs Intel ~$475 million.

  • 1994: Apple enters the on-line service market by announcing eWorld.
  • 1994: HP becomes a Taligent partner and buys 15% from Apple and IBM.
  • 1994: MCI invests $1.3B in Nextel Communications, a wireless service provider.
  • 1994: Macintoshes using the PowerPC start shipping.
  • 1994: Intel introduces the 486DX4 clock-tripling microprocessor.
  • 1994: Aldus and Adobe agree to merge in a transaction worth $525M and will form a $0.5B+ software company.
  • 1994: Novell says it will acquire WordPerfect for $1.14B and will buy Borland's Quattro Pro for $145M.
  • 1995

Apple ships 1 millionth Power Mac.

IBM announces 1 million copies OS/2.

Windows 95 is released with no small fanfare 1 million copies sold through retail in first 4 days.

NSFNET reverts back to research network - commercial providers begin carrying the backbone Internet traffic.

Compuserve, AOL and Prodigy begin Internet access.

Registration of Domain names - no longer free - now $50.

August 9 - Netscape becomes 3rd largest NASDAQ IPO offering ever - Jim Clark, Mark Andreesen, James Barksdale.

Intel Pentium Pro at

150-200 MHz

$974 - $1682

9,000,000 hosts connected WWW

Moore's Second Law

The cost of building chip fabrication plants will continue to increase (and the return on investment to decrease) until it becomes fiscally untenable to build new plants.

  • 1995 - Gordon Moore, Co-Founder, INTEL Corp.
  • 1996

Microsoft ships 30 millionth copy of Windows 95.

Digital announces 433 MHz and 500 MHz Alpha processors.

Intel delivers the $55 million "Teraflop" machine to Sandia National Labs - Dept of Energy.

7,264 Pentium 200’s in parallel

July 1996
12,880,000 hosts connected to the Internet

  • 1996: October - DPMA members elect to change the Association's to the "ASSOCIATION of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS"

As before, the changing nature of the industry seemed to dictate a more inclusive and progressive name.

January 1997

Intel announces 200-MHz Pentium MMX

64-bit bus

32-bit registers

32 Kb on-board cache

4.5 million transistors

$550 ea. qty 1000

January 1, 1997


  • 1997 :

Release of Microsoft Windows 95's updated version

Microsoft Office 97 Released

  • 1998 :

First FAT32 operating system MS windows 98 released

  • 1999 :

Linux picking the pace.

The Red hat releases Red hat Linux 6.1 and immediately after 6.2 with latest kernel update.

Corel Announces to introduce coral Linux

Microsoft releases the MS Office 2000.

  • 2000 :

Corel Released a Corel Linux

On 17th February Microsoft release newer version of Windows NT 4.0 But this time it is known as

Windows 2000.( Initially it was named as Windows NT 5.0)

Bill Gates step-down from the chairmanship of the Microsoft Corporation.

  • 7 June : Microsoft lost the case of monopoly. Though they challenge it in highercourt.